About district

Gulbarga district is one of the three districts that were transferred from Hyderabad State to Karnataka state at the time of re-organization of the state in 1956. The district is one among the 29 districts of Karnataka State. It is located in the Northern part of the state and lies between North latitude 17 10 and 17 45 and between east longitude 76 10 and 77 45 The District is a biggest district in the state covering 8.49% of the area and 5.9 present of population of the state. It is bounded on the west by Bijapur district of Karnataka and Sholapur district of Maharashtra, on the west by Bijapur district of Andhra Pradesh, on the north by Bidar district of and Osmanabad district of Maharashtra and on the south by Richur district of Karnataka. They are Afzalpur, Aland, Chincholli, Chittapur, Gulbarga, Jewargi, Sedam, Shahapur, Shorapur and Yadgir.

 

A Brief History

The District was under the rule of Nijam s of Hyderabad before independence. The district has a rich background of knowledge and culture. The existence of university at Nagai in Chitapur, Vignaneeshwaras Mitakshara, Nrupatungas Kavirajmarg and the religious and social revolution led by Shivsharanas and the Sufi saint Banda Nawaz are all evidence of it. However, due to erratic rainfall and continuous occurrence of droughts in the 19th century the life of the people was never smooth and secure. Further during the Nizams period, the district could not develop due to the negligence and inefficient administration. The distance was also a factor contributing to it. Thus it was one of the most backward districts when it joined the old Mysore State (Fact Finding Committee 1954). This position has not changed even after five decades.

Socio Economic Background

In recent years a High Power Committee was constituted by the govt. of Karnataka to look into the problem of regional imbalances in the state. The Committee (popularly known as Nanjundappa Committee) submitted its report in 2002. The committee, on the basis of various socio-economic indicators assessed the development of 175 talukas in the state. The Committee has identified nine talukas among the ten talukas in Gulbarga district as the most backward talukas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table - 1

Most Backward Talukas of Gulbarga District in Karnataka State

Taluka

Rank in State

Index

Sedam

155

0.72

Chittapur

165

0.65

Afzalpur

170

0.62

Aland

172

0.61

Chincholi

173

0.57

Jewargi

174

0.57

Source: Report of the High Power Committee for Redressal of Regional Imbalance in Karnataka, Govt. of Karnataka Bangalore 2002

Geographical Traits:

      The district has total area of 16174 Sq. Kms. This constitutes 5.93% of the area of the state. The region is characterized by black cotton soil, expanses of flat treeless surface, a range of hills covering a surface of about 60 miles and same lower belts following the main rivers. The district is devoid of forest except in the hilly portion of Aland and Chincholi. The area under forest is 4.2% of the total area.

Table - 2

1. GENERAL PARTICULARS

Sl. No

Taluks

Hoblies

Grama Panchayaths

Inha bitted

Un- Inha bitted

Towns/ Urban Agglomeration

1

Afzalpur

3

22

89

4

0

2

Aland

5

39

135

1

1

3

Chincholli

4

32

137

11

0

4

Chittapur

5

35

122

3

5

5

Gulbarga

6

36

136

4

1

6

Jewargi

5

33

145

14

0

7

Sedam

4

23

109

8

3

 

TOTAL

32

220

873

45

10

 

Table - 3

Land use Classification: (Unit: Area in Hectares)

Taluka

Area under Forest

Land Not available for cultivation

Cultivable waste

Uncultivated land excluding fallow land

Fallow land

Land put to non agri.uses

Barren & uncultivable land

Pmt. Pastures & other grazing land`

Mics. Tree cropes, groves

Current fallows

Other fallow land

Afzalpur

78

5819

2395

458

1322

4

15083

Aland

2854

3465

3142

974

3469

55

28504

2600

Chincholi

19622

3006

13003

2723

6516

857

8703

700

Chittapur

6150

9368

3689

4530

674

21

25591

1480

Gulbarga

4121

8150

4223

78

4322

39

24237

300

Jewargi

310

8317

1838

294

6486

60

3761

230

Sedam

2181

3295

6823

360

3066

50

3345

1475

TOTAL

35316

41420

35113

9417

25855

1086

109224

6785

Table - 3 A

Weather information of Gulbarga District for last 10 years (2002 To 2011)

Year

Avg. Rain fall (mm)

Temperature (c) RH
(%)

2002

525.99

   

2003

504.14

   

2004

578.64

   

2005

790.12

   

2006

508.6

   
2007      
2008      
2009      
2010      
2011      

 

 Basic Infrastructure.

      The district lacks adequate infrastructure which is one of the basic cause of long economic stagnation in the district. The total length of surface roads is only 28.26 kms. The length of village roads is 3678.75 kms. A large part of these roads are closed during rainy season. The total length of railway line is 225 kms. The district headquarter lies on the main National Network. But the internal network availability is very low. Only 5 talukas Afzalpur, Chittapur, Gulbarga and Sedam are connected by a railway line.

Table - 4

INFRASTRUCTURE

Taluka

State

Highways

Major District Roads

Other District

Roads

Village

Roads

Railway Route Length

Afzalpur

101.1

141.48

----

602.4

31

Aland

185.1

182.5

----

703.2

---

Chincholi

131.6

112

----

582.85

---

Chittapur

56.3

272.2

----

693.35

66

Gulbarga

112.3

48.85

0

648.79

38

Jewargi

36.35

239.1

----

1045.7

Sedam

95.6

117

0

381.45

32

TOTAL

718.35

1113.13

0

4657.74

167

Table - 5

Area Irrigated through various sources

Taluka

Canals

Tanks

Wells

Borewells

Lift Irrigation

Other Sources

Total

Afzalpur

 

67

8891

970

60

1653

11641

Aland

--

165

6045

 

247

177

7297

Chincholi

1529

324

544

799

---

158

3354

Chittapur

--

--

538

265

---

518

1321

Gulbarga

77

45

3112

202

---

---

3436

Jewargi

16859

--

6000

330

---

592

23781

Sedam

--

480

1215

179

---

293

2167

Total

18465

1081

26345

2745

307

3391

52997

  Table - 6

Rural Electrification

Taluka

Total Villages

Villages electrified

IP Sets

Afzalpur

89

93

9251

Aland

135

75

11567

Chincholi

137

125

1800

Chittapur

122

68

2358

Gulbarga

136

29

7599

Jewargi

145

36

2644

Sedam

109

34

1840

TOTAL

873

460

37059

 Educational Infrastructure.

The district has following infrastructure for provision of Education.

Sl. No Particulars Nos
1

Primary School

2800

2

High School

500

3

Junior College

132

4

General Colleges;

26

5

Medical Colleges  
(Including ISM)

06

6

Polytechnic Colleges

08

7

Engineering Colleges

05

 Demographic Trends

       Gulbarga District is experiencing rapid growth of population since 1951. The decimal growth rate has increased from 14.5 percent to 15.3 percent between 1951 61 to 24.2 percent between 1981 to 1991 and has slightly come down to 21 percent between 1999 2001. The population of the district as per 2001 census is 31,30,922 of which male population if 15,92,789 and female population is 15,38,133. The sex ratio is 966 per 1000 male persons. This is slightly above the state average of 965 and well above the national average of 933.72% of the population lives in rural areas. The population is spread over the geographical area and the density of population is 192 per sq.km. 

Table - 7

Population trends during the 20th century Decadal variation

1901

883062

--

1911

964468

9.22

1921

887875

-7.94

1931

990505

11.56

1941

1059716

6.99

1951

1213608

14.5

1961

1399457

15.31

1971

1739220

24.2

1981

2080643

19.6

1991

2582169

24.1

2001

3130922

21.4

Source census of India District census Hand book Gulbarga District 1961-2001.

Table -8

Demographic Characteristics - 2001

Taluka

Area

Total Population

Male

Female

Rural

Urban

Afzalpur

1305

180071

92538

87533

160736

19335

Aland

1735

297136

152233

144903

261891

35245

Chincholi

1569

223646

113309

110337

206502

17144

Chittapur

1765

366802

186390

180412

238532

12870

Gulbarga

1730

675679

348665

327014

245414

430265

Jewargi

1822

235254

119598

115656

216075

19179

Sedam

1025

196154

97709

98445

156026

40128

District

10951

2174742

1110442

1064300

1485176

574166

 

Taluka

% of Urban Population

Sex Ratio

Density

Afzalpur

10.7

946

116

Aland

11.9

952

150

Chincholi

7.7

974

121

Chittapur

35

968

175

Gulbarga

63.7

938

303

Jewargi

8.2

967

104

Sedam

20.5

1008

159

DISTRICT

157.7

6753

1128

SC and ST Population

        Gulbarga district has a sizable part of Scheduled Caste Population. It is 23% of the total population of the district. It is ranked 3rd in the state in respect of this next to Kolar and Chamraj nagar. In absolute numbers, the position of the district (7,17,595) is next toBangalore Urban (8,51,047). The SC and ST population forms 22.9 and 4.9 percent of total population respectively.

Within the district the C.C population is concentrated in the talukas of Chincholi (33.2) Chittapur (29.3) and Sedam(25.8). It is lowest in Afzalpur taluka i.e, 17.8 percent. The proportion of SC population to total population has declined from 23.6% to 22.9 percent between 1991-2001. The decline follows mainly from four talukas i.e., Yadgir (24% to 22.3%) Gulbarga (21.4% to 20.4%) Afzalpur (18.6% to 17.8%) and Shorapur (18.9% to 18.2%).

The proportion of ST population in district population has increased marginally from 4% to 49%. The total ST population of the district as per 2001 census is 154195. It was 106935 in 1991. The growth rate per annum is 4.4%.

Table - 9

Population of Scheduled Castes and Schedule Tribes 2001

SI.No

Taluka

Scheduled Castes

Schedule Tribes

Total

Rural

Urban

Proportion to total population (percent)

Total

Rural

Urban

Proportion to total population (percent)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

Afzalpur

32103

28607

3496

17.82

3720

3667

53

2.06

2

Aland

67652

63682

3970

22.77

6194

6035

159

2.08

3

Chincholi

74337

70023

4314

33.23

5153

4917

236

2.3

4

Chittapur

107506

66845

40661

29.3

5789

4560

1229

15.78

5

Gulbarga

138047

73669

64378

20.43

9986

5335

4651

14.78

6

Jewargi

46806

43240

3566

19.89

11221

10454

767

4.76

7

Sedam

50686

42248

8438

25.83

5072

4129

943

2.58

 

TOTAL

517137

388314

128823

169.27

47135

39097

8038

44.34

  Table - 10

Literacy Rate- Scheduled Caste

SI.No

Talukas

Total

Rural

Urban

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

1

Afzalpur

45.7

24.4

35.4

45.07

23.43

34.59

51.04

32.21

42.14

2

Aland

46.8

25.1

36.3

46.12

24.43

35.53

57.14

37.06

47.78

3

Chincholi

41

20

30.8

44.12

23.65

34.31

66.23

46.31

56.74

4

Chittapur

43

24.84

34.08

39.3

19.2

29.75

56.7

35

47.19

5

Gulbarga

54.7

34.1

44.8

28.9

13.98

21.47

51.47

30.15

41.14

6

Jewargi

36.8

18

27.5

35.38

18.66

27.15

55.48

35.08

45.5

7

Sedam

32.8

16.6

24.7

35.4

16.88

26.27

53.04

30.95

42.54

TOTAL

300.8

163.04

233.58

274.29

140.23

209.07

391.1

246.76

323.03

Table - 11

Literacy Rate- Scheduled Tribes

Sl.No.

Talukas

Male

Female

Total

Rural

Urban

1

Afzalpur

48.4

28.6

39

39

39.6

2

Aland

46.8

25.2

36.4

36.2

42.1

3

Chincholi

50.2

27.3

39

38.6

47

4

Chittapur

38.4

19.9

29.4

24.6

47.1

5

Gulbarga

55.2

35.9

45.9

33

60.7

6

Jewargi

37

15.7

26.5

25.6

38.4

7

Sedam

34.5

17

25.6

24

32.2

TOTAL

310.5

169.6

241.8

221

307.1

 Occupational Structure.

         The district economy is mainly an agricultural economy as agriculture contributes 31.7% of district income and provides employment to 67% of the population. (A large part of the land is under dry land cultivation as the area under irrigation is only 18.8 percent of the net area sown).

Table – 12

Occupational pattern of the workforce (Main workers%)

Census Year

Cultivators

Agricultural labourers

Household industry

Other Workers

Total

1961

45.55

26.44

9.21

18.8

100

1971

34.13

36.55

4.4

24.92

100

1981

36.78

43.95

2.66

16.61

100

1991

35.19

50.15

2.06

12.6

100

2001

27.1

40

2.5

30.4

100

The occupational structure is stagnant over the time period. The proportion of population engaged in agriculture has increased from 70% in 1961 to 75% during 1981-91 and has fallen down to 67% in 2001. The other trend observed is the percentage of agricultural laborers was increasing till 1991. It has increased from 26.44% in 1961 to 40.1% in 1991 but has come down to 39.96% in 2001. Though the share of tertiary sector in district income has increased from 36.6 in 1991 to 45.2 percent in 2001-02 but its share in employment has increased from 12.6 to 30.4% in 2001 during the same period. Thus a trend of employment generation in service sector is set in post 1991 period.

Table - 13

Distribution of Land Holding in the district

 

Number

Percentage

Area

Percentage

Marginal

 Holding

112331

20.46

13463

1

Small holdings

191271

34.86

281868

20.93

Semi Medium

158492

28.87

435718

32.36

Medium

73750

13.45

435001

32.32

Large

12956

2.36

180220

13.39

 Total

548808

100

1346270

100

The distribution of land holdings indicates the domination of semi medium holdings. They form 28.87 percent of total holdings and cover an area of 32.36 percent.

Table - 14

Land under Cultivation

Taluka

Net area sown

Area sown more than once

Total cropped area

Area under Food grains

Afzalpur

105000

11000

116000

84926

Aland

128354

3800

166354

115484

Chincholi

100724

23416

124140

104319

Chittapur

124944

15000

139944

131719

Gulbarga

127695

19510

147205

116151

Jewargi

164017

24451

188468

133700

Sedam

81850

13517

95367

88854

District

832584

110694

977478

775153

 Cropping Pattern

The cropping pattern is mainly dominated by food crops. Tur is the main crop produced in the district. The district is called as Tur Bowl of the state. Jawar is the other main food crop Sunflower and Groundnut are the major oilseeds which occupy the area of 1783870 and 59047 respectively.

Table - 15

Area under Principal Crops Cereals (in Ha)

Taluka

Paddy

Jowar

Bajra

Maize

Wheat

Other cereals & Minor Millets

Total Cereals & Minor Millets

 Afzalpur

71

26645

6105

440

3255

14

36530

 Aland

651

30190

11172

564

3542

2

46121

 Chincholi

225

22267

1314

72

139

15

24032

 Chittapur

632

25690

3232

43

680

13

30290

 Gulbarga

585

33753

8455

245

1829

27

44894

 Jewargi

2894

37410

6320

346

4894

13

51877

 Sedam

1105

19941

408

0

185

3

21642

DISTRICT

6163

195896

37006

1710

14524

87

255386

Table - 16

Area under Pulses

Taluka

Gram

Tur

Other  Pulses

Total

Afzalpur

12140

32123

4133

48396

Aland

8117

39995

21251

69363

Chincholi

12784

40816

26687

80287

Chittapur

32285

54803

14341

101429

Gulbarga

11624

50307

9326

71257

Jewargi

13642

58615

9566

81823

Sedam

15857

30553

20802

67212

District

106449

307212

106106

519767

 Table - 17

Area under Oliseeds

Taluka

Groundnut

Sunflower

Oilseeds

Other Pulses

Afzalpur

2701

23163

3268

29132

Aland

898

39171

10213

50282

Chincholi

57

285

3016

3358

Chittapur

290

4902

3657

8849

Gulbarga

512

18846

6524

25882

Jewargi

8528

29108

2732

40368

Sedam

756

3041

1935

5732

DISTRICT

13742

118516

31345

163603

 Commercial Crops

Sugarcane and cotton are the two commercial crops produced in the district. But the area under these crops is very less.

Table - 18

Area under Commercial Crops

Taluka

Sugarcane

Cotton

Afzalpur

3057

615

Aland

1236

--

Chincholi

1740

121

Chittapur

40

88

Gulbarga

527

3

Jewargi

200

4046

Sedam

31

--

DISTRICT

6831

4873

Table - 19

Agricultural Production during X plan.

SI.

No

Crops

Production in Lakh tones ( Cotton – Lakh bales)

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Average

1

Total Cereals

4.235

4.742

3.816

5.34

3.903

4.407

2

Total Pulses

2.516

2.576

2.52

2.781

1.512

2.381

Total Foodgrains

6.751

7.318

6.336

8.121

5.415

6.788

3

Total Oilseeds

0.188

0.664

0.197

0.22

0.223

0.298

4

Commercial Crops

 

 

 

 

 

 

I) Cotton

0.041

0.0134

0.097

0.035

0.0133

0.0398

 

II) Sugarcane

7.63

7.105

8.68

14.44

9.941

Animal Husbandry

The livestock population of the district (as per the 2003 census)

Cattle

819620

819620

224109

Sheep

459515

Goats

562104

Poultry

733497

Others

152560

Total

2951405

The district has got 300 Veterinary Institutions to implement various programs for promotion of animal husbandry.

 

1. Veterinary Hospitals

15

2. Veterinary Dispensaries

129

3. Primary veterinary Centers 

115

4. Artificial Insemination Centers 

21

5. Sheep & Wool Development Centers        

8

6. Mobile Vety Clinic                                       

10

7. Canine Rabies control Unit                        

01

8. Pulloram disease Control Unit

01

TOTAL

300

Table - 20

Milk Production.

Year

Milk production In 1000 tonnes

Procurement (after Local consumption) In 1000 tonnes

2002-03

214

2.657

2003-04

205

2.834

2004-05

209

3.431

2005-06

216

4.245

2006-07

219

5.91

  Horticulture

Table – 21                      Area under Horticulture Crops.

Taluka

Fruits

Vegetables

Afzalpur

916

712

Aland

676

1874

Chincholi

470

176

Chittapur

98

313

Gulbarga

552

1129

Jewargi

333

262

Sedam

216

112

DISTRICT

3261

4578

 Industries and Employment.

The total number of registered factories is 113 and the employment is 8985.

Table – 22                              Factories and Employment

 

Textiles

Chemical

Engineering

Others

Total

Employment

Afzalpur

---

1

---

1

2

3000

Aland

1

---

1

2

4

400

Chincholi

---

---

1

---

1

50

Chittapur

---

---

4

4

8

300

Gulbarga

---

3

9

47

59

3000

Jewargi

---

---

1

---

1

50

Sedam

---

---

---

3

3

1500

District

1

4

16

57

78

8300

The small scale industries are developed in Automobiles, Electrical and Electronics and food and intoxicants.

Table – 29                  Employment in Small Scale Industry

Automobiles

Electrical & Electronics

Food & Intoxicants

Taluka

Number

Workers

Number

Workers

Number

Workers

Afzalpur

10

20

---

---

4

24

Aland

15

30

0

0

2

8

Chincholi

9

18

0

0

3

12

Chittapur

19

38

0

0

5

20

Gulbarga

36

176

8

40

25

178

Jewargi

2

4

0

0

1

6

Sedam

4

8

0

0

2

16

DISTRICT

95

294

8

40

42

264